Hardware Layer: This is where all the hardware devices like RAM, HDD, and CPU are located.
Kernel: Like any other operating system, Linux too has a kernel that talks directly to the hardware and provides essential services to other parts.Shell: The shell is like a translator between you and the kernel. It takes your commands and makes them understandable to the kernel.Utilities: These are helpful tools that let you do many things with the operating system. They make using the computer easier and more efficient.EXAMPLE #1Let's use a simple example of creating a new directory to understand the functioning of these Linux components:User Action: The user enters the command "mkdir new_directory" in the shell and presses Enter.Shell Interaction: The shell interprets the command and understands that the user wants to create a new directory named "new_directory".It communicates with the kernel, requesting the creation of a new directory called "new_directory".Kernel Action: The kernel receives the request and checks permissions to ensure the user has the necessary rights to create a directory. If permissions are correct, the kernel creates the directory and updates the file system accordingly.And it notifies the shell that the directory has been created. The shell displays a confirmation message to the user.EXAMPLE #2Let's consider another example of a user launching a web browser (chrome browser):User Action: The user clicks on the web browser icon to launch it.Shell Interaction: The shell (command interpreter) takes the user's command and communicates with the kernel. In this case, the shell recognizes the command to launch the web browser.Kernel Action: The kernel allocates memory for the browser's process, schedules it to run on a processor core, and sets up the necessary resources for the browser to execute.The chrome web browser process is now running. It communicates with the kernel to interact with hardware devices like the display, mouse, and keyboard. The kernel manages these interactions, ensuring the browser has access to the resources it needs.ConclusionThis theoretical overview has provided us with foundational knowledge about the Linux operating system. Now, let's delve deeper into its practical applications in the upcoming sections.